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Periodontology is a branch of dentistry that focuses on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases affecting the gums and supporting structures of the teeth. Gum disease, also known as gingivitis, is a bacterial infection that, if left untreated, can progress to a more severe condition called periodontitis, which involves the inflammation and damage to the underlying bone. Periodontal diseases are primarily caused by the accumulation of plaque and tartar on the teeth, leading to inflammation and infection of the gums and underlying bone.

Preventing periodontal disease involves maintaining good oral hygiene practices, such as brushing twice a day, daily flossing and interdental brushing, and regular visits to the dentist for check-ups and cleanings. A healthy diet and lifestyle can also help prevent gum disease.

The treatment of periodontal disease typically involves multiple deep and thorough cleanings to remove plaque and tartar from the surfaces of the teeth and roots. In some cases, antibiotics or other medications may be prescribed to control the infection. In more severe cases, surgery may be required to repair damaged tissues or replace missing teeth.

After periodontal treatment, it is crucial to maintain good oral hygiene and regularly visit the dentist for follow-up preventive care, which will help preserve the achieved periodontal health.